Now, let’s really begin this post with a quick vocabulary lesson, because Laureate is a tricky word – I had to look up how to spell it myself.
According to Google,
Laureate: a person who is honored with an award for outstanding creative or intellectual achievement
Thus what we’re talking about today is me, a young scientist, meeting Nobel prize winner Dr. Harald zur Hausen. This is like meeting a rock star, seriously. Nobel prizes in science and medicine are given to people who make completely transformative discoveries that change the way the entire research community approaches a problem. This hope to change the world is the reason many people choose to go in to STEM, and it is inspiring to meet someone who has achieved that goal.
At the welcome dinner, there was literally a line of young scientists and clinicians who waited in line to meet Dr. zur Hausen and get a picture with him, and he was so kind to speak with all of us and humor us with taking countless pictures.
Dr. zur Hausen was one of 3 Nobel prize winners in Physiology/Medicine. Just for context of the importance of the work he did, the other two researchers who won that year discovered HIV. Kind of a big deal. Dr. zur Hausen won the award for discovering that human papilloma virus (HPV) is the source of most cervical cancers in 1984. We now know that it is associated with a host of other cancers as well. I’ll spare you the details.
Think about the implications of that work.
First of all, it led to dramatic improvements in screening for cervical cancer.
More importantly, 22 years later, this led to a vaccine for HPV, which should dramatically reduce the incidence of cervical (and other) cancers.
This man could be responsible for almost completely eradicating cervical cancer.
Remember when we talked about inventors the other day? The discovery made by this man has dramatically impacted the lives of millions of women (and men) worldwide.
He didn’t just stop once he made this revolutionary discovery. His career was pretty much set, but he kept doing incredible research in virus work.
When I went to Dr. zur Hausen’s lecture, I was expecting to hear about cervical cancer. Instead, the title of the talk was something about cow meat and cow milk being pathogenic.
This is completely outside the world of cervical cancer and I was fascinated to see the talk. (spoiler: the talk was fantastic!!) Dr. zur Hausen showed us lots of data about how international colon rates internationally vary based on the amount of red meat consumed. He also showed how as countries have increased their meat consumption, the rates of colon cancer have gone up accordingly, and how rates are also impacted by which species of animal is being consumed, and how it is prepared.
Traditionally, the source of carcinogens in red meat is thought to be hydrocarbon byproducts from cooking. Fish and white meat are prepared the same way and have the same potential carcinogen byproducts in the cooking process – but there isn’t a link to cancer rates like there is with red meat. Therefore, maybe something else is at play besides the known carcinogens. Perhaps consuming infected meat is a co-factor that acts in connection with some other process to aid in cancer development.
At this point, I was really enjoying the talk – but it got more mind-blowing from there.
The colon cancer story made a lot of sense because meat that you consume goes through the colon during the digestion process. Next, Dr. zur Hausen showed some compelling data which suggested that there might be a link between cow milk consumption and the incidence of both breast and lung cancer. It’s pretty incredible that you could make the leap that there might be a virus playing into the risk factors for those diseases – and hugely significant.
For this work, his lab collected samples of cow milk and serum and did analysis to see what types of viruses were most commonly present. Then, they compared the findings with diseases found in humans. What’s interesting is that so far, the disease they found where the virus DNA was similar between the animal milk and human disease was multiple sclerosis (MS).
Dr. zur Hausen showed a potential theory for the development of MS as a combination of two viruses in early age (including one from cow milk). Later in life, if there is a vitamin D deficiency, the viruses can be re-activated and mutated, causing brain lesions consistent with MS. Wow, just wow.
If that is true, and there is a virus that is part of the MS puzzle, then preventative therapies can be developed. . Instead of treating people, cows can be vaccinated for the identified virus, so the virus never reaches humans. Absolutely incredible, earth-shaking medical research.
I left the lecture inspired, and tempted to pursue a career change to virology. It is incredible the type of impact a single person can make. What kind of impact will you make in your career?